Kazakhstan Timeline: A chronology of key events
Turkic-speaking and Mongol tribes invade and settle in what is now Kazakhstan and Central Asia.
Arab invaders introduce Islam.
Mongol tribes led by Genghis Khan invade Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Later they become assimilated by Turkic tribes that make up the majority in their empire.
Late 15th century
With the formation of the Kazakh khanate, the Kazakhs emerge as a distinct ethnic group
Early 17th century
Kazakhs split into three tribal unions, the Elder, Middle and Lesser Zhuzes, or Hordes, which were led by Khans.
Soviet rule 1920
Kazakhstan becomes an autonomous republic of the USSR. Until 1925 it is called the Kyrgyz Autonomous Province to distinguish its people from the Cossacks.
Intensive industrialization and collectivization of agriculture. More than 1 million people died from starvation as a result of the campaign to settle nomadic Kazakhs and collectivize agriculture.
Transformation of the Kazakh ASSR into a Union Republic (Kazakh SSR).
Adoption of the Constitution of the Kazakh SSR.
Formation of the Kazakh SSR. On June 24, 1938 - election to the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR.
1937 - 1938
Massive political repressions.
Hundreds of thousands of Koreans, Crimean Tatars, Germans and others forcibly moved to Kazakhstan
The Great Patriotic war. In war years 1,196,164 Kazakhstanis fought among the rest of the combating troops. Casualties amounted to almost 410,000 of the Kazakhstanis.
The first nuclear test explosion is carried out at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test ground in eastern Kazakhstan
1937 - 1951
Deportation of whole nations to Kazakstan: Koreans, Germans, Karachays, Chechens, Ingushes, Balkars, Kabardines, Kalmyks, Crimean Tatars, Meskhet Turks of Georgia, Ukrainians, Greeks, Georgians, etc.
About 2 million people, mainly Russians, move to Kazakhstan during the campaign to develop virgin lands launched by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev; the proportion of ethnic Kazakhs in the republic drops to 30%.
Census of the population. Overall number of the population of the Republic - 9,295,000 people with Kazakhs making up 2,787,000 people (29.8%).
The first manned spacecraft launched from the Baykonur space launch site in central Kazakhstan
1979 - 1988
The Afghan war. 21,979 Kazakhstanis participated therein.
Major oil agreements secured with China. The Kazakh capital is moved from Almaty in the south to Akmola (formerly Tselinograd) in the north.
Elaboration of the Program of Kazakhstan‘s strategic development up to 2030
Since Dec. 10, 1997
Akmola has become the new capital of the country.
The new capital is renamed Astana. The constitution is amended, extending the president's term in office from five to seven years and removing the upper age limit for the president.
Nazarbayev is re-elected president in January, after his main rival, former Prime Minister Akezhan Kazhegeldin, is barred from standing; later parliamentary elections, held for the first time by a combination of party list and first-past-the-post system, are criticized by the OSCE for various irregularities. A census held in February shows ethnic Kazakhs constitute 54.3% of the 14.9 million population. A separatist plot by ethnic Russians in North East Kazakhstan fails.
Economic Security Strategy up to 2010 is adopted. The World Bank praises the country's economic reforms. Kazakhstan beefs up security on all borders following incursions by Islamist militants in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan; clampdown on Uighurs after shoot-out in Almaty.
The first major pipeline for transporting oil from the Caspian direct to world markets opens on 26 March. The pipeline runs from the huge Tengiz oil field in western Kazakhstan to the Russian Black Sea port of Novorossiysk and will potentially transform Kazakhstan's economy.
Kazakhstan joins China, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in launching the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), which states its aims as fighting ethnic and religious militancy and promoting trade and investment.
September - Pope John Paul II pays his first visit.
Nazarbayev purges his government of officials accused of joining the newly-formed Democratic Choice, which promotes a decentralization of power and a more independent judiciary and parliament.
Nazarbayev, US President George W. Bush meet and declare a common commitment to strengthening a long-term, strategic partnership
President Nazarbayev appoints Imangali Tasmagambetov as prime minister to replace Kasymzhomart Tokayev, who quit abruptly to make way for "new ideas." Tasmagambetov was a deputy prime minister in the former governments of Tokayev and Akezhan Kazhegeldin.
Kazakh opposition figure Galymzhan Zhakiyanov, founder of Democratic Choice movement and prominent critic of President Nazarbayev imprisoned for alleged abuse of office as a regional governor.
President Nazarbayev appoints Danial Akhmetov as prime minister to replace Imangali Tasmagambetov
Elections to Mazhilis. Percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Otan 42, AIST 11, ASAR (All Together) 4, Ak Zhol (Bright Path) 1, Democratic Party 1, independent 18; note - most independent candidates are affiliated with parastatal enterprises and other pro-government institutions
Court orders dissolution of Democratic Choice, one of the country's main opposition parties. The party is accused of breaching state security by calling on supporters to protest against parliamentary election results.
The parliament of Kazakhstan has approved legislation aimed at restricting the activity of what it considers religious extremist groups. President Nursultan Nazarbaev is due within the next two weeks to make a decision on the new bill.
Opposition groups join together to form For A Just Kazakhstan movement led by Zharmakhan Tuyakbay.
Opposition figure Zamanbek Nurkadilov, a vocal critic of President Nazarbayev, found shot dead at his home.
Nursultan Nazarbayev returned for further term as president with over 90% of vote. Western observers say poll flawed.
Opposition leader Galymzhan Zhakiyanov returns home to Almaty from internal exile after being released on parole.
Opposition figure Altynbek Sarsenbaiuly, his bodyguard and driver found shot dead outside Almaty.
41 die in gas explosion at coal mine south of Astana.
Health minister and other officials sacked after dozens of children test positive for HIV
infection following blood transfusion at pediatric clinic in the south.
Prime Minister Daniyal Akhmetov resigns, giving no reason for his move. He is replaced by former deputy premier Karim Masimov.
Parliament votes to allow President Nazarbayev to stay in office for an unlimited number of terms. Nazarbayev fires son-in-law Rakhat Aliyev in an apparent power struggle.
Elections to Parliament. Seats by party - Otan 127, Ak Zhol (Bright Path) - 114, National Social Democratic Party - 80, Ayul – 40, People Communist party – 22,
Patriots‘ Patry – 13, Rukhaniyat – 11.
The OSCE‘s year-end meeting in Madrid has resolved that Kazakhstan shall hold the organization‘s Chairmanship in 2010.
President Nazarbayev's exiled former son-in-law, Rakhat Aliyev, is sentenced to 20 years imprisonment in absentia after being found guilty of plotting a coup. Aliyev denies the charges, saying they are politically motivated.
Kazakhstan joined other Black Sea grain exporters in curbing shipments to combat double-digit inflation. Wheat exports were suspended until Sep 10. Kazakhstan will become the world‘s 5th largest wheat exporter this year, shipping half its record 2007 crop.
Kazakhstan‘s lower house of parliament, the Majilis has approved an amendment to the law ―On Holidays in Republic of Kazakhstan.‖
According to Majilis committee on social and cultural development, the document provides for instituting a new holiday in the republic - Day of Capital. The holiday will be celebrated on July 6. The holiday will carry the meaning of historic and cultural values and symbolize achievements of the nation.
Kazakhstan says it will allow the United States to ship non-military cargo via its territory to Afghanistan.
President Nazarbayev announces readiness to build a nuclear fuel bank to ensure other countries do not need to develop their own fuel. Idea first proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2005, and supported by both the United States and Russia.
- A law tightens control over the internet by ruling that chat rooms, blogs and public forums count as mass media.
Kazakhstan becomes the first former Soviet state to chair the Organisation of Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) security and rights group. President Nazarbayev signals a change in emphasis from rights to security.
Kazakhstan's state media outlets printed the text of a law giving President Nursultan Nazarbaev special powers for life, RFE/RL's Kazakh Service reports. According to the law, Nazarbaev receives the status of "leader of the nation." As such, he cannot be prosecuted for any crimes, and his property and that of members of his family cannot be confiscated.
The President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, opened in Astana the first OSCE Summit in 11 years, calling the gathering a "triumph of common sense" and urging the Heads of State and Government from the 56 OSCE participating States to "advance together towards a secure future for our peoples".
President Nazarbayev calls early presidential election on 3 April, after a planned referendum on allowing him to stay on unopposed until 2020 was ruled unconstitutional.
Information Provided By Peace Corps Kazakhstan